Scientific References

The Research Base We've Used as Evidence to Support the Trainings.

DAY 1 - Subtract Fat with the Ketogenic Diet

Gibson, A. A., et al. “Do Ketogenic Diets Really Suppress Appetite? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 16, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 64–76, doi:10.1111/obr.12230.

Phinney, S. D., et al. “The Human Metabolic Response to Chronic Ketosis without Caloric Restriction: Physical and Biochemical Adaptation.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 32, no. 8, Aug. 1983, pp. 757–68, doi:10.1016/0026-0495(83)90105-1.

Harber, Matthew P., et al. “Alterations in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Response to Short-Term Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 289, no. 2, 2005, pp. E306–12, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00069.2005.

Nguyen, N. U., et al. “Carbohydrate Metabolism and Urinary Excretion of Calcium and Oxalate after Ingestion of Polyol Sweeteners.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 77, no. 2, Aug. 1993, pp. 388–92, doi:10.1210/jcem.77.2.8345042.

Lowery, Ryan P., et al. “Corrigendum: The Effects of Soluble Corn Fibre and Isomaltooligosaccharides on Blood Glucose, Insulin, Digestion and Fermentation in Healthy Young Males and Females.” Journal of Insulin Resistance, vol. 3, no. 1, May 2018, p. 1, doi:10.4102/jir.v3i1.35.

Sumithran, P., et al. “Ketosis and Appetite-Mediating Nutrients and Hormones after Weight Loss.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 7, July 2013, pp. 759–64, doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.90.

Norgren, Jakob, et al. “Capillary Blood Tests May Overestimate Ketosis: Triangulation between Three Different Measures of β-Hydroxybutyrate.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 318, no. 2, Dec. 2019, pp. E184–88, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00454.2019.

Fukao, Toshiyuki, et al. “Pathways and Control of Ketone Body Metabolism: On the Fringe of Lipid Biochemistry.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 70, no. 3, Mar. 2004, pp. 243–51, doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.11.001.

Musa-Veloso, Kathy, et al. “Breath Acetone Is a Reliable Indicator of Ketosis in Adults Consuming Ketogenic Meals.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 1, July 2002, pp. 65–70, doi:10.1093/ajcn/76.1.65.

Schrauwen, P., et al. “Changes in Fat Oxidation in Response to a High-Fat Diet.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 66, no. 2, Aug. 1997, pp. 276–82, doi:10.1093/ajcn/66.2.276.

Riou, J. P., et al. “Antiketogenic Effect of Glucose per Se in Vivo in Man and in Vitro in Isolated Rat Liver Cells.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 35, no. 7, July 1986, pp. 608–13, doi:10.1016/0026-0495(86)90165-4.

van Delft, Renske, et al. “Blood Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Correlates Better with Seizure Reduction Due to Ketogenic Diet than Do Ketones in the Urine.” Seizure, vol. 19, no. 1, Jan. 2010, pp. 36–39, doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2009.10.009.

Meidenbauer, Joshua J., et al. “The Glucose Ketone Index Calculator: A Simple Tool to Monitor Therapeutic Efficacy for Metabolic Management of Brain Cancer.” Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 12, no. 1, 2015, p. 12, doi:10.1186/s12986-015-0009-2.

Youm, Yun-Hee, et al. “The Ketone Metabolite β-Hydroxybutyrate Blocks NLRP3 Inflammasome-Mediated Inflammatory Disease.” Nature Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, Mar. 2015, pp. 263–69, doi:10.1038/nm.3804.

Goldberg, Emily L., et al. “β-Hydroxybutyrate Deactivates Neutrophil NLRP3 Inflammasome to Relieve Gout Flares.” Cell Reports, vol. 18, no. 9, Feb. 2017, pp. 2077–87, doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2017.02.004.

Cunnane, Stephen C., et al. “Can Ketones Help Rescue Brain Fuel Supply in Later Life? Implications for Cognitive Health during Aging and the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease.” Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 9, July 2016, doi:10.3389/fnmol.2016.00053.

Paoli, A., et al. “Beyond Weight Loss: A Review of the Therapeutic Uses of Very-Low-Carbohydrate (Ketogenic) Diets.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 8, Aug. 2013, pp. 789–96, doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.116.

Wirrell, Elaine C. “Ketogenic Ratio, Calories, and Fluids: Do They Matter?” Epilepsia, vol. 49, 2008, pp. 17–19, doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01825.x.

Nilsson, L. Hson, et al. “Carbohydrate Metabolism of the Liver in Normal Man under Varying Dietary Conditions.” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 32, no. 4, Jan. 1973, pp. 331–37, doi:10.3109/00365517309084356.

Webster, Christopher C., et al. “Gluconeogenesis during Endurance Exercise in Cyclists Habituated to a Long-Term Low Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet.” The Journal of Physiology, vol. 594, no. 15, 2016, pp. 4389–405, doi:10.1113/JP271934.

Fernández-Elías, Valentín E., et al. “Relationship between Muscle Water and Glycogen Recovery after Prolonged Exercise in the Heat in Humans.” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 115, no. 9, Sept. 2015, pp. 1919–26, doi:10.1007/s00421-015-3175-z.

d C. Harvey, Cliff J., et al. “The Effect of Medium Chain Triglycerides on Time to Nutritional Ketosis and Symptoms of Keto-Induction in Healthy Adults: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial.” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, 2018, doi:10.1155/2018/2630565.

Wan, Zhongxiao, et al. “Reduction of AMPK Activity and Altered MAPKs Signalling in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Response to Acute Glucose Ingestion Following a Short-Term High Fat Diet in Young Healthy Men.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 63, no. 9, Sept. 2014, pp. 1209–16, doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2014.06.007.

Durrer, Cody, et al. “Short-Term Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet in Healthy Young Males Renders the Endothelium Susceptible to Hyperglycemia-Induced Damage, An Exploratory Analysis.” Nutrients, vol. 11, no. 3, Mar. 2019, p. 489, doi:10.3390/nu11030489.

Foster, Gary D., et al. “Weight and Metabolic Outcomes After 2 Years on a Low-Carbohydrate Versus Low-Fat Diet.” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 3, Aug. 2010, pp. 147–57, doi:10.1059/0003-4819-153-3-201008030-00005.

Urbain, Paul, et al. “Impact of a 6-Week Non-Energy-Restricted Ketogenic Diet on Physical Fitness, Body Composition and Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Adults.” Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 14, no. 1, Dec. 2017, pp. 1–11, doi:10.1186/s12986-017-0175-5.

Morgan, L. M., et al. “Comparison of the Effects of Four Commercially Available Weight-Loss Programmes on Lipid-Based Cardiovascular Risk Factors.” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 6, June 2009, pp. 799–807, doi:10.1017/S1368980008003236.

Urbain, Paul, and Hartmut Bertz. “Monitoring for Compliance with a Ketogenic Diet: What Is the Best Time of Day to Test for Urinary Ketosis?” Nutrition & Metabolism, vol. 13, Nov. 2016, doi:10.1186/s12986-016-0136-4.

Dougkas, Anestis, and Elin Östman. “Protein-Enriched Liquid Preloads Varying in Macronutrient Content Modulate Appetite and Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Healthy Adults.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 146, no. 3, Mar. 2016, pp. 637–45, doi:10.3945/jn.115.217224.

Kohanmoo, Ali, et al. “Effect of Short- and Long-Term Protein Consumption on Appetite and Appetite-Regulating Gastrointestinal Hormones, a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 226, Aug. 2020, p. 113123, doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113123.

Gorczyca, Anna M., et al. “Changes in Macronutrient, Micronutrient, and Food Group Intakes throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy, Premenopausal Women.” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 3, Apr. 2016, pp. 1181–88, doi:10.1007/s00394-015-0931-0.

White, Colin P., et al. “Fluid Retention over the Menstrual Cycle: 1-Year Data from the Prospective Ovulation Cohort.” Obstetrics and Gynecology International, Aug. 2011, doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/138451.

Buchanan, K. D., and M. T. McKiddie. “The Normal Insulin Response to Glucose.” Diabetologia, vol. 3, no. 5, Oct. 1967, pp. 460–64, doi:10.1007/BF01228083.

Manhiani, M. Marlina, et al. “Chronic Sodium-Retaining Action of Insulin in Diabetic Dogs.” American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology, vol. 300, no. 4, Apr. 2011, pp. F957-965, doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00395.2010.

Maagøe, H. “Changes in Blood Volume during Absolute Fasting with and without Sodium Chloride Administration.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 17, no. 2, Feb. 1968, pp. 133–38, doi:10.1016/0026-0495(68)90139-x.

Palmer, Biff F. “Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis.” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, vol. 10, no. 6, June 2015, pp. 1050–60, doi:10.2215/CJN.08580813.

Adrogué, Horacio J. “Consequences of Inadequate Management of Hyponatremia.” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 25, no. 3, 2005, pp. 240–49, doi:10.1159/000086019.

Henry, Dan A. “Hyponatremia.” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 163, no. 3, Aug. 2015, pp. ITC1–16, doi:10.7326/AITC201508040.

Williams, David M., et al. “The Clinical Management of Hyponatraemia.” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 92, no. 1089, July 2016, pp. 407–11, doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133740.

Gennari, F. J. “Hypokalemia.” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 7, Aug. 1998, pp. 451–58, doi:10.1056/NEJM199808133390707.

Soar, Jasmeet, et al. “European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 8. Cardiac Arrest in Special Circumstances: Electrolyte Abnormalities, Poisoning, Drowning, Accidental Hypothermia, Hyperthermia, Asthma, Anaphylaxis, Cardiac Surgery, Trauma, Pregnancy, Electrocution.” Resuscitation, vol. 81, no. 10, Oct. 2010, pp. 1400–33, doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2010.08.015.

de Baaij, Jeroen H. F., et al. “Magnesium in Man: Implications for Health and Disease.” Physiological Reviews, vol. 95, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 1–46, doi:10.1152/physrev.00012.2014.

DiNicolantonio, James J., et al. “Subclinical Magnesium Deficiency: A Principal Driver of Cardiovascular Disease and a Public Health Crisis.” Open Heart, vol. 5, no. 1, Jan. 2018, p. e000668, doi:10.1136/openhrt-2017-000668.

O’Donnell, Martin, et al. “Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Events.” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 371, no. 7, Aug. 2014, pp. 612–23, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1311889.

Holbrook, J. T., et al. “Sodium and Potassium Intake and Balance in Adults Consuming Self-Selected Diets.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 40, no. 4, Oct. 1984, pp. 786–93, doi:10.1093/ajcn/40.4.786.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. doi:10.17226/5776. Accessed 2 Sept. 2020.

Fujita, Y., et al. “Basal and Postprotein Insulin and Glucagon Levels during a High and Low Carbohydrate Intake and Their Relationships to Plasma Triglycerides.” Diabetes, vol. 24, no. 6, June 1975, pp. 552–58, doi:10.2337/diab.24.6.552.

McCarron, Margaret M., and Ben J. Devine. “Clinical Pharmacy: Case Studies: Case Number 25 Gentamicin Therapy.” Drug Intelligence & Clinical Pharmacy, 1974, doi:10.1177/106002807400801104. world.

Barras, Michael, and Amy Legg. “Drug Dosing in Obese Adults.” Australian Prescriber, vol. 40, no. 5, Oct. 2017, pp. 189–93, doi:10.18773/austprescr.2017.053.

DAY 2 - Subtract Fat with Fasting

LeCheminant, James D., et al. “Restricting Night-Time Eating Reduces Daily Energy Intake in Healthy Young Men: A Short-Term Cross-over Study.” The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 11, Dec. 2013, pp. 2108–13, doi:10.1017/S0007114513001359.

Gabel, Kelsey, et al. “Effects of 8-Hour Time Restricted Feeding on Body Weight and Metabolic Disease Risk Factors in Obese Adults: A Pilot Study.” Nutrition and Healthy Aging, vol. 4, no. 4, June 2018, pp. 345–53, doi:10.3233/NHA-170036.

Cienfuegos, Sofia, et al. “Effects of 4- and 6-h Time-Restricted Feeding on Weight and Cardiometabolic Health: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Adults with Obesity.” Cell Metabolism, vol. 0, no. 0, July 2020, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.018.

Gill, Shubhroz, and Satchidananda Panda. “A Smartphone App Reveals Erratic Diurnal Eating Patterns in Humans That Can Be Modulated for Health Benefits.” Cell Metabolism, vol. 22, no. 5, Nov. 2015, pp. 789–98, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.09.005.

Sumithran, P., et al. “Ketosis and Appetite-Mediating Nutrients and Hormones after Weight Loss.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 7, July 2013, pp. 759–64, doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.90.

Zauner, C., et al. “Resting Energy Expenditure in Short-Term Starvation Is Increased as a Result of an Increase in Serum Norepinephrine.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 6, June 2000, pp. 1511–15, doi:10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1511.

Browning, Jeffrey D., et al. “The Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Liver and Skeletal Muscle Lipid, Glucose, and Energy Metabolism in Healthy Women and Men.” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 53, no. 3, Mar. 2012, pp. 577–86, doi:10.1194/jlr.P020867.

Patterson, Ruth E., and Dorothy D. Sears. “Metabolic Effects of Intermittent Fasting.” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 37, 21 2017, pp. 371–93, doi:10.1146/annurev-nutr-071816-064634.

Johnson, James B., et al. “Alternate Day Calorie Restriction Improves Clinical Findings and Reduces Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Overweight Adults with Moderate Asthma.” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 42, no. 5, Mar. 2007, pp. 665–74, doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.12.005.

Catenacci, Victoria A., et al. “A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Zero-Calorie Alternate-Day Fasting to Daily Caloric Restriction in Adults with Obesity.” Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), vol. 24, no. 9, 2016, pp. 1874–83, doi:10.1002/oby.21581.

Corley, B. T., et al. “Intermittent Fasting in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the Risk of Hypoglycaemia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Diabetic Medicine: A Journal of the British Diabetic Association, vol. 35, no. 5, 2018, pp. 588–94, doi:10.1111/dme.13595.

Elia, M., et al. “The Energy Cost of Triglyceride-Fatty Acid Recycling in Nonobese Subjects after an Overnight Fast and Four Days of Starvation.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 36, no. 3, Mar. 1987, pp. 251–55, doi:10.1016/0026-0495(87)90184-3.

Brandhorst, Sebastian, et al. “A Periodic Diet That Mimics Fasting Promotes Multi-System Regeneration, Enhanced Cognitive Performance, and Healthspan.” Cell Metabolism, vol. 22, no. 1, July 2015, pp. 86–99, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2015.05.012.

Wei, Min, et al. “Fasting-Mimicking Diet and Markers/Risk Factors for Aging, Diabetes, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease.” Science Translational Medicine, vol. 9, no. 377, Feb. 2017, p. eaai8700, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aai8700.

MacCuish, A. C., et al. “Follow-up Study of Refractory Obesity Treated by Fasting.” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 5584, Jan. 1968, pp. 91–92, doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5584.91.

Cahill, G. F., et al. “Hormone-Fuel Interrelationships during Fasting.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 45, no. 11, Nov. 1966, pp. 1751–69, doi:10.1172/JCI105481.

Harvie, M. N., et al. “The Effects of Intermittent or Continuous Energy Restriction on Weight Loss and Metabolic Disease Risk Markers: A Randomized Trial in Young Overweight Women.” International Journal of Obesity (2005), vol. 35, no. 5, May 2011, pp. 714–27, doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.171.

Mansell, P. I., et al. “Enhanced Thermogenic Response to Epinephrine after 48-h Starvation in Humans.” The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 258, no. 1 Pt 2, Jan. 1990, pp. R87-93, doi:10.1152/ajpregu.1990.258.1.R87.

Nair, K. S., et al. “Leucine, Glucose, and Energy Metabolism after 3 Days of Fasting in Healthy Human Subjects.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 46, no. 4, Oct. 1987, pp. 557–62, doi:10.1093/ajcn/46.4.557.

Stubbs, Brianna J., et al. “On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans.” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 8, 2017, doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00848.

St-Pierre, Valérie, et al. “Plasma Ketone and Medium Chain Fatty Acid Response in Humans Consuming Different Medium Chain Triglycerides During a Metabolic Study Day.” Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 6, Apr. 2019, doi:10.3389/fnut.2019.00046.

Gibson, A. A., et al. “Do Ketogenic Diets Really Suppress Appetite? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 16, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 64–76, doi:10.1111/obr.12230.

Fukao, Toshiyuki, et al. “Pathways and Control of Ketone Body Metabolism: On the Fringe of Lipid Biochemistry.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 70, no. 3, Mar. 2004, pp. 243–51, doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.11.001.

Buchanan, K. D., and M. T. McKiddie. “The Normal Insulin Response to Glucose.” Diabetologia, vol. 3, no. 5, Oct. 1967, pp. 460–64, doi:10.1007/BF01228083.

Fujita, Y., et al. “Basal and Postprotein Insulin and Glucagon Levels during a High and Low Carbohydrate Intake and Their Relationships to Plasma Triglycerides.” Diabetes, vol. 24, no. 6, June 1975, pp. 552–58, doi:10.2337/diab.24.6.552.

Riou, J. P., et al. “Antiketogenic Effect of Glucose per Se in Vivo in Man and in Vitro in Isolated Rat Liver Cells.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 35, no. 7, July 1986, pp. 608–13, doi:10.1016/0026-0495(86)90165-4.

Musa-Veloso, Kathy, et al. “Breath Acetone Is a Reliable Indicator of Ketosis in Adults Consuming Ketogenic Meals.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 1, July 2002, pp. 65–70, doi:10.1093/ajcn/76.1.65.

Dougkas, Anestis, and Elin Östman. “Protein-Enriched Liquid Preloads Varying in Macronutrient Content Modulate Appetite and Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Healthy Adults.” The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 146, no. 3, Mar. 2016, pp. 637–45, doi:10.3945/jn.115.217224.

Kohanmoo, Ali, et al. “Effect of Short- and Long-Term Protein Consumption on Appetite and Appetite-Regulating Gastrointestinal Hormones, a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 226, Aug. 2020, p. 113123, doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113123.

McCarron, Margaret M., and Ben J. Devine. “Clinical Pharmacy: Case Studies: Case Number 25 Gentamicin Therapy.” Drug Intelligence & Clinical Pharmacy, 1974, doi:10.1177/106002807400801104. world.

Barras, Michael, and Amy Legg. “Drug Dosing in Obese Adults.” Australian Prescriber, vol. 40, no. 5, Oct. 2017, pp. 189–93, doi:10.18773/austprescr.2017.053.

Natalucci, G., et al. “Spontaneous 24-h Ghrelin Secretion Pattern in Fasting Subjects: Maintenance of a Meal-Related Pattern.” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 152, no. 6, June 2005, pp. 845–50, doi:10.1530/eje.1.01919.

Fothergill, Erin, et al. “Persistent Metabolic Adaptation 6 Years after ‘The Biggest Loser’ Competition.” Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), vol. 24, no. 8, 2016, pp. 1612–19, doi:10.1002/oby.21538.

Manhiani, M. Marlina, et al. “Chronic Sodium-Retaining Action of Insulin in Diabetic Dogs.” American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology, vol. 300, no. 4, Apr. 2011, pp. F957-965, doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00395.2010.

Maagøe, H. “Changes in Blood Volume during Absolute Fasting with and without Sodium Chloride Administration.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 17, no. 2, Feb. 1968, pp. 133–38, doi:10.1016/0026-0495(68)90139-x.

Palmer, Biff F. “Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis.” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, vol. 10, no. 6, June 2015, pp. 1050–60, doi:10.2215/CJN.08580813.

O’Donnell, Martin, et al. “Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion, Mortality, and Cardiovascular Events.” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 371, no. 7, Aug. 2014, pp. 612–23, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1311889.

Holbrook, J. T., et al. “Sodium and Potassium Intake and Balance in Adults Consuming Self-Selected Diets.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 40, no. 4, Oct. 1984, pp. 786–93, doi:10.1093/ajcn/40.4.786.

Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. doi:10.17226/5776. Accessed 2 Sept. 2020.

Garber, A. J., et al. “The Role of Adrenergic Mechanisms in the Substrate and Hormonal Response to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Man.” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 58, no. 1, July 1976, pp. 7–15, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC333149/.

Mitchell, Heather A., and David Weinshenker. “Good Night and Good Luck: Norepinephrine in Sleep Pharmacology.” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 79, no. 6, Mar. 2010, pp. 801–09, doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2009.10.004.

Nishihara, K., and K. Mori. “The Relationship between Waking Time and Urinary Epinephrine in Bed-Rested Humans under Conditions Involving Minimal Stress.” International Journal of Psychophysiology: Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology, vol. 6, no. 2, June 1988, pp. 133–37, doi:10.1016/0167-8760(88)90044-x.

Dodt Christoph, et al. “Plasma Epinephrine and Norepinephrine Concentrations of Healthy Humans Associated With Nighttime Sleep and Morning Arousal.” Hypertension, vol. 30, no. 1, July 1997, pp. 71–76, doi:10.1161/01.HYP.30.1.71.

Masserano, Joseph M., and Carl King. “Effects on Sleep of Phentolamine and Epinephrine Infused into the Locus Coeruleus of Cats.” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 84, no. 3, Oct. 1982, pp. 199–204, doi:10.1016/0014-2999(82)90202-3.

Romoff, Mark S., et al. “Effect of Sodium Intake on Plasma Catecholamines in Normal Subjects.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 48, no. 1, Jan. 1979, pp. 26–31, doi:10.1210/jcem-48-1-26.

Murasato Yoshinobu, et al. “Effect of Magnesium Deficiency on Autonomic Circulatory Regulation in Conscious Rats.” Hypertension, vol. 34, no. 2, Aug. 1999, pp. 247–52, doi:10.1161/01.HYP.34.2.247.

Wang, Yi-Qun, et al. “Fasting Activated Histaminergic Neurons and Enhanced Arousal Effect of Caffeine in Mice.” Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, vol. 133, June 2015, pp. 164–73, doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2015.04.003.

Inagawa, Kentaro, et al. “Subjective Effects of Glycine Ingestion before Bedtime on Sleep Quality.” Sleep and Biological Rhythms, vol. 4, no. 1, 2006, pp. 75–77, doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2006.00193.x.

Lyon, Michael R., et al. “The Effects of L-Theanine (Suntheanine®) on Objective Sleep Quality in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.” Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, vol. 16, no. 4, Dec. 2011, pp. 348–54.

Ota, Miho, et al. “Effect of L-Theanine on Glutamatergic Function in Patients with Schizophrenia.” Acta Neuropsychiatrica, vol. 27, no. 5, Oct. 2015, pp. 291–96, doi:10.1017/neu.2015.22.

Higashiyama, Akiko, et al. “Effects of L-Theanine on Attention and Reaction Time Response.” Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 3, no. 3, July 2011, pp. 171–78, doi:10.1016/j.jff.2011.03.009.

van der Pijl, P. C., et al. “Human Disposition of L-Theanine in Tea or Aqueous Solution.” Journal of Functional Foods, vol. 2, no. 4, Oct. 2010, pp. 239–44, doi:10.1016/j.jff.2010.08.001.

DAY 3 - Subtract Fat with Exogenous Ketones

Stubbs, Brianna J., et al. “On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans.” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 8, 2017, doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00848.

St-Pierre, Valérie, et al. “Plasma Ketone and Medium Chain Fatty Acid Response in Humans Consuming Different Medium Chain Triglycerides During a Metabolic Study Day.” Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 6, Apr. 2019, doi:10.3389/fnut.2019.00046.

Gibson, A. A., et al. “Do Ketogenic Diets Really Suppress Appetite? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 16, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 64–76, doi:10.1111/obr.12230.

Van Wymelbeke, V., et al. “Influence of Medium-Chain and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols on the Control of Food Intake in Men.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 68, no. 2, Aug. 1998, pp. 226–34, doi:10.1093/ajcn/68.2.226.

Fischer, Tobias, et al. “Effect of a Sodium and Calcium DL-β-Hydroxybutyrate Salt in Healthy Adults.” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2018, Apr. 2018, doi:10.1155/2018/9812806.

Stubbs, Brianna J., et al. “A Ketone Ester Drink Lowers Human Ghrelin and Appetite.” Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), vol. 26, no. 2, Feb. 2018, pp. 269–73, doi:10.1002/oby.22051.

Sumithran, P., et al. “Ketosis and Appetite-Mediating Nutrients and Hormones after Weight Loss.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 7, July 2013, pp. 759–64, doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.90.

Norgren, Jakob, et al. “Capillary Blood Tests May Overestimate Ketosis: Triangulation between Three Different Measures of β-Hydroxybutyrate.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 318, no. 2, Dec. 2019, pp. E184–88, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00454.2019.

Harber, Matthew P., et al. “Alterations in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Response to Short-Term Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 289, no. 2, 2005, pp. E306–12, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00069.2005.

Fukao, Toshiyuki, et al. “Pathways and Control of Ketone Body Metabolism: On the Fringe of Lipid Biochemistry.” Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 70, no. 3, Mar. 2004, pp. 243–51, doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.11.001.

Musa-Veloso, Kathy, et al. “Breath Acetone Is a Reliable Indicator of Ketosis in Adults Consuming Ketogenic Meals.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 76, no. 1, July 2002, pp. 65–70, doi:10.1093/ajcn/76.1.65.

Tamir, I., et al. “Effects of a Single Oral Load of Medium-Chain Triglyceride on Serum Lipid and Insulin Levels in Man.” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 9, no. 5, Sept. 1968, pp. 661–66, http://www.jlr.org/content/9/5/661.

Natalucci, G., et al. “Spontaneous 24-h Ghrelin Secretion Pattern in Fasting Subjects: Maintenance of a Meal-Related Pattern.” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 152, no. 6, June 2005, pp. 845–50, doi:10.1530/eje.1.01919.

Krotkiewski, M. “Value of VLCD Supplementation with Medium Chain Triglycerides.” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 25, no. 9, Sept. 2001, pp. 1393–400, doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801682.

Clarke, Kieran, et al. “Kinetics, Safety and Tolerability of (R)-3-Hydroxybutyl (R)-3-Hydroxybutyrate in Healthy Adult Subjects.” Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology : RTP, vol. 63, no. 3, Aug. 2012, doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2012.04.008.

Borges, Karin, et al. “Randomized Trial of Add-on Triheptanoin vs Medium Chain Triglycerides in Adults with Refractory Epilepsy.” Epilepsia Open, vol. 4, no. 1, Mar. 2019, pp. 153–63, doi:10.1002/epi4.12308.

Stubbs, Brianna J., et al. “Gastrointestinal Effects of Exogenous Ketone Drinks Are Infrequent, Mild and Vary According to Ketone Compound and Dose.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, Apr. 2019, pp. 1–23, doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0014.

Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre, et al. “Emulsification Increases the Acute Ketogenic Effect and Bioavailability of Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Humans.” Current Developments in Nutrition, vol. 1, no. 7, July 2017, doi:10.3945/cdn.117.000851.

DAY 4 - Make it a Lifestyle

Harber, Matthew P., et al. “Alterations in Carbohydrate Metabolism in Response to Short-Term Dietary Carbohydrate Restriction.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 289, no. 2, 2005, pp. E306–12, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00069.2005.

Zauner, C., et al. “Resting Energy Expenditure in Short-Term Starvation Is Increased as a Result of an Increase in Serum Norepinephrine.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 71, no. 6, June 2000, pp. 1511–15, doi:10.1093/ajcn/71.6.1511.

Stubbs, Brianna J., et al. “On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans.” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 8, 2017, doi:10.3389/fphys.2017.00848.

St-Pierre, Valérie, et al. “Plasma Ketone and Medium Chain Fatty Acid Response in Humans Consuming Different Medium Chain Triglycerides During a Metabolic Study Day.” Frontiers in Nutrition, vol. 6, Apr. 2019, doi:10.3389/fnut.2019.00046.

Gibson, A. A., et al. “Do Ketogenic Diets Really Suppress Appetite? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 16, no. 1, Jan. 2015, pp. 64–76, doi:10.1111/obr.12230.

Sumithran, P., et al. “Ketosis and Appetite-Mediating Nutrients and Hormones after Weight Loss.” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 67, no. 7, July 2013, pp. 759–64, doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.90.

Van Wymelbeke, V., et al. “Influence of Medium-Chain and Long-Chain Triacylglycerols on the Control of Food Intake in Men.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 68, no. 2, Aug. 1998, pp. 226–34, doi:10.1093/ajcn/68.2.226.

Fischer, Tobias, et al. “Effect of a Sodium and Calcium DL-β-Hydroxybutyrate Salt in Healthy Adults.” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2018, Apr. 2018, doi:10.1155/2018/9812806.

Stubbs, Brianna J., et al. “A Ketone Ester Drink Lowers Human Ghrelin and Appetite.” Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), vol. 26, no. 2, Feb. 2018, pp. 269–73, doi:10.1002/oby.22051.

Browning, Jeffrey D., et al. “The Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Liver and Skeletal Muscle Lipid, Glucose, and Energy Metabolism in Healthy Women and Men.” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 53, no. 3, Mar. 2012, pp. 577–86, doi:10.1194/jlr.P020867.

LeCheminant, James D., et al. “Restricting Night-Time Eating Reduces Daily Energy Intake in Healthy Young Men: A Short-Term Cross-over Study.” The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 110, no. 11, Dec. 2013, pp. 2108–13, doi:10.1017/S0007114513001359.

Gabel, Kelsey, et al. “Effects of 8-Hour Time Restricted Feeding on Body Weight and Metabolic Disease Risk Factors in Obese Adults: A Pilot Study.” Nutrition and Healthy Aging, vol. 4, no. 4, June 2018, pp. 345–53, doi:10.3233/NHA-170036.

Cienfuegos, Sofia, et al. “Effects of 4- and 6-h Time-Restricted Feeding on Weight and Cardiometabolic Health: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Adults with Obesity.” Cell Metabolism, vol. 0, no. 0, July 2020, doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2020.06.018.

Norgren, Jakob, et al. “Capillary Blood Tests May Overestimate Ketosis: Triangulation between Three Different Measures of β-Hydroxybutyrate.” American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 318, no. 2, Dec. 2019, pp. E184–88, doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00454.2019.

Phinney, S. D., et al. “The Human Metabolic Response to Chronic Ketosis without Caloric Restriction: Physical and Biochemical Adaptation.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 32, no. 8, Aug. 1983, pp. 757–68, doi:10.1016/0026-0495(83)90105-1.

Johnson, James B., et al. “Alternate Day Calorie Restriction Improves Clinical Findings and Reduces Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Overweight Adults with Moderate Asthma.” Free Radical Biology & Medicine, vol. 42, no. 5, Mar. 2007, pp. 665–74, doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2006.12.005.

Catenacci, Victoria A., et al. “A Randomized Pilot Study Comparing Zero-Calorie Alternate-Day Fasting to Daily Caloric Restriction in Adults with Obesity.” Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), vol. 24, no. 9, 2016, pp. 1874–83, doi:10.1002/oby.21581.

Natalucci, G., et al. “Spontaneous 24-h Ghrelin Secretion Pattern in Fasting Subjects: Maintenance of a Meal-Related Pattern.” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 152, no. 6, June 2005, pp. 845–50, doi:10.1530/eje.1.01919.

Carbone, Salvatore, et al. “Obesity Paradox in Cardiovascular Disease: Where Do We Stand?” Vascular Health and Risk Management, no. 15, May 2019, pp. 89–100, doi:10.2147/VHRM.S168946.

Shepherd, John A., et al. “Body Composition by DXA.” Bone, vol. 104, Nov. 2017, pp. 101–05, doi:10.1016/j.bone.2017.06.010.

Ashwell, Margaret. “Charts Based on Body Mass Index and Waist-to-Height Ratio to Assess the Health Risks of Obesity: A Review.” The Open Obesity Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, May 2011, https://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOOBESJ-3-78.

Ashwell, Margaret, et al. “Waist-to-Height Ratio Is More Predictive of Years of Life Lost than Body Mass Index.” PLOS ONE, vol. 9, no. 9, Sept. 2014, p. e103483, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0103483.

Peng, Y., Li, W., Wang, Y., Bo, J., Chen, H., 2015. The Cut-Off Point and Boundary Values of Waist-to-Height Ratio as an Indicator for Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Chinese Adults from the PURE Study. PLoS One 10. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144539

Dybala, M.P., Brady, M.J., Hara, M., 2019. Disparity in Adiposity among Adults with Normal Body Mass Index and Waist-to-Height Ratio. iScience 21, 612–623. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2019.10.062

Browning, Lucy M., et al. “A Systematic Review of Waist-to-Height Ratio as a Screening Tool for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes: 0·5 Could Be a Suitable Global Boundary Value.” Nutrition Research Reviews, vol. 23, no. 2, Dec. 2010, pp. 247–69, doi:10.1017/S0954422410000144.

Jayedi, Ahmad, et al. “Central Fatness and Risk of All Cause Mortality: Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of 72 Prospective Cohort Studies.” BMJ, vol. 370, Sept. 2020, doi:10.1136/bmj.m3324.

Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation. https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789241501491. Accessed 8 Nov. 2020.

Ashwell, M., et al. “Waist-to-Height Ratio Is a Better Screening Tool than Waist Circumference and BMI for Adult Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, vol. 13, no. 3, Mar. 2012, pp. 275–86, doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00952.x.

Shelmet, J. J., et al. “Ethanol Causes Acute Inhibition of Carbohydrate, Fat, and Protein Oxidation and Insulin Resistance.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 81, no. 4, Apr. 1988, pp. 1137–45, doi:10.1172/JCI113428.

Yeomans, Martin R. “Alcohol, Appetite and Energy Balance: Is Alcohol Intake a Risk Factor for Obesity?” Physiology & Behavior, vol. 100, no. 1, Apr. 2010, pp. 82–89, doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.01.012.

Morgan, L. M., et al. “Comparison of the Effects of Four Commercially Available Weight-Loss Programmes on Lipid-Based Cardiovascular Risk Factors.” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 12, no. 6, June 2009, pp. 799–807, doi:10.1017/S1368980008003236.

White, Colin P., et al. “Fluid Retention over the Menstrual Cycle: 1-Year Data from the Prospective Ovulation Cohort.” Obstetrics and Gynecology International, Aug. 2011, doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/138451.

Gorczyca, Anna M., et al. “Changes in Macronutrient, Micronutrient, and Food Group Intakes throughout the Menstrual Cycle in Healthy, Premenopausal Women.” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 3, Apr. 2016, pp. 1181–88, doi:10.1007/s00394-015-0931-0.

Ostendorf, Danielle M., et al. “No Consistent Evidence of a Disproportionately Low Resting Energy Expenditure in Long-Term Successful Weight-Loss Maintainers.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 108, no. 4, 01 2018, pp. 658–66, doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqy179.

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